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Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Every year, more than 40,000 women die in the U.S. from breast cancer. Early detection with routine breast cancer screening followed immediately with appropriate treatment could prevent many of these deaths. A doctor‘s failure to recommend routine breast cancer screening to their female patients and to follow up on abnormal test results may constitute medical malpractice.
Screening for breast cancer
Cancer specialists generally recommend that a doctor should order a yearly mammogram and conduct a yearly clinical breast examination on all female patients age 40 or older, even if the patient has no family history of breast cancer and has no symptoms. A doctor should perform a breast examination every 3 years for female patients in their 20s and 30s.
If a patient is at moderate (15%-20%) lifetime risk the doctor should discuss the option of adding a yearly MRI as part of the screening process. For patients at high (more than 20%) lifetime risk, the doctor should add a yearly MRI to the screening process. The lifetime risk is assessed based on such factors as family history, the presence of gene mutations, characteristics of the breast, and personal medical history.
The clinical breast examination determines whether there are any palpable lumps or other abnormality in the breast that could indicate the presence of cancer. The mammogram and MRI use imaging technology to identify changes or masses in the breast that may not detectable from a clinical breast examination. Should an abnormality be found, a biopsy (sampling of breast tissue) is then performed to rule out or confirm the presence of cancer.
The progression of the breast cancer is tracked through stages
– Stage 0 (Also known as Cancinoma In Situ): There are 2 types: (1) Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) which is a noninvasive condition which involves the presence of abnormal cells confined to the lining of the breast duct, and (2) Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) which involves the presence of abnormal cells in the lobules of the breast.
– Stage I: The tumor is less than 2 cm and has not spread outside the breast.
– Stage IIA: Either (1) no tumor is found in the breast but cancer is found in at least one of the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm), (2) the tumor is 2 cm or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, or (3) the tumor is between 2 cm and 5 cm and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
– Stage IIB: Either (1) the tumor is between 2 cm and 5 cm and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, or (2) the tumor is larger than 5 cm and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
– Stage IIIA: Either (1) no tumor is found in the breast but cancer is found in axillary lymph nodes attached to each other or other structures, or in lymph nodes near the breastbone, (2) the tumor is 2 cm or smaller and the cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes attached to each other or other structures, or to lymph nodes near the breastbone, (3) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and the cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes attached to each other or other structures, or to lymph nodes near the breastbone, or (4) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread beyond the axillary lymph nodes.
– Stage IIIB: The tumor may be any size and the cancer (1) has spread to the chest wall and/or the skin of the breast, or (2) may have spread to axillary lymph nodes that may be attached to each other or to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone.
– Stage IIIC: The cancer is operable if it is detected (1) in ten or more axillary lymph nodes, (2) is found in lymph nodes below the collarbone, or (3) is found in axillary lymph nodes and in lymph nodes near the breastbone. The cancer is inoperable if it has spread to the lymph nodes above the collarbone.
– Stage IV: The cancer has spread to other organs in the body, usually the bones, lungs, liver, or brain.
Breast cancer treatment and prognosis
Cancer specialists associate a statistic called the 5 year survival rate with each stage of the cancer. This statistic reflects, for each stage, the percentage of women who will survive 5 years or more after a diagnosis with that particular stage.
For Stage 0, treatment options include a breast conserving surgery (lumpectomy or partial mastectomy) with sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection and radiation therapy, mastectomy (for women at high risk a bilateral prophylactic mastectomy may be an option), and/or endocrine therapy . The 5-year survival rate is nearly 100% for Stage 0.
For Stage I, treatment options include breast conserving surgery with sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection and radiation, mastectomy, and chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy. The 5-year survival rate is also nearly 100% for Stage 1.
For Stage II, treatment options include breast conserving surgery with sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection and radiation, mastectomy, and chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy. I. The 5-year survival rate is 92% for Stage IIA and 81% for Stage IIB.
For Stage IIIA, the treatment options remain the same as for Stage II. The relative 5-year survival rate is 67% for Stage IIIA.
For Stages IIIB and IIIC, treatment options depend on whether the cancer is operable. Chemotherapy is often the initial treatment in order to attempt to reduce the size of the tumor. If the tumor is operable, treatment options may include breast conserving surgery or mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection, radiation, and chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy. If the cancer is inoperable, the 5-year survival rate is 54% for Stage IIIB.
For Stage IV, treatment options may include radiation therapy, endocrine therapy and/or systemic chemotherapy, Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, radiation therapy, surgery and medications to relieve pain, and clinical trials. The 5-year survival rate drops to approximately 20%.
Failure to screen for breast cancer may constitute medical malpractice
Unfortunately, even though the statistics make it very clear that early detection through breast cancer screening saves lives, there are still doctors who fail to screen female patients for breast cancer. They fail to perform breast examinations and fail to order mammograms. And some doctors ignore abnormal breast examination results and even abnormal mammograms results.
By the time the cancer is discovered – often because the patient sees a different doctor who finally conducts a clinical breast examination or orders a mammogram, or the patient starts to feel back pain or other symptoms – the breast cancer has already advanced to Stage III or even Stage IV.
The prognosis is now much different for this woman than it would have been had the breast cancer been detected early through routine breast cancer screening. As a result of the failure on the part of the doctor to advise a female patient to undergo routine screening, or to follow up on an abnormal mammogram or MRI result, the breast cancer is now much more advanced and the woman has suffered a “loss of chance” of a better recovery. In other words, she now has a reduced chance of surviving the breast cancer.
Contact a Lawyer Today
If you or a family member suffered a delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer due to a doctor‘s failure to recommend routine screening or to follow up on abnormal breast examination or mammogram results, you need to contact a lawyer immediately. This article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be legal or medical advice. You should not act, or refrain from acting, based upon any information at this web site without seeking professional legal counsel.
A competent lawyer with experience in medical malpractice can assist you in determining whether you may have a claim for a delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer due to a failure on the part of the doctor to offer breast cancer screening. There is a time limit in cases like these so do not wait to call.
Have you made the world of beauty?There are many beauty techniques to learn and several skills to develop. Do you understand how to apply your products properly? If you do not, then read the following tips.
Buy a good eyelash curler. A lot of folks have no idea how terrific their lashes could look after curling them. Curling eyelashes brightens and makes them look bigger. You can even find heated curler which supposedly keep your eyelashes curled for a longer amount of time.
Make sure you aren’t allergic to your fake eyelashes.Make sure that the test area.
You can adjust the style and color of your hair’s cut and slim your face. A haircut with long and sleek can do the trick. You can also use of both face-framing lowlights or highlights to frame your face. These can be flattering and highlight the features of your face more attractive.
Curl your lashes before you put on your mascara. This helps lift your eye area and gives your eyes appear fresh and rested. Start at the lash base and squeeze the curler, and hold the eyelash curler tightly shut for one second.Doing this adds a natural curve than if you only apply it once.
Make sure to exercise every day.Staying active on a regular basis will greatly help you combat aging and the issues that come with it. It is a vital part of your beauty kit. You only need to exercise for at least 15 minutes daily. You could get this activity by cleaning your home or walking around the neighborhood.
Brush circularly, from your feet up to your face, take a warm shower and use a gentle cleanser.
Honey is a great addition to your skin. Honey has many beauty benefits for your skin.You can retain more moisture in your skin by mixing honey to your regular moisturizer. Adding a little honey to shampoo helps to keep your hair that is softer and shinier.
So, now you have learned a few tips that will help you look the best you can. Although you may not have known too much before reading this article, you are sure to now have an idea of what it takes to apply products properly. What a wonderful thing! Keep this advice in mind as you build your beauty regimen. Enjoy the beauty world.
The tips in this article can provide you gain the knowledge you need to choose a regimen that works for you.
You should rub some Vaseline onto your cuticles healthy. This will help to keep your nails grow quicker because it helps nourish the day. It also make your cuticles look healthier. You will notice results after application.
Studies have proved that people believe symmetry is beautiful. If you are looking for beauty, symmetry is something to focus on.Whether this is in applying make up, trimming a beard or whatever, be sure that both sides look very similar.
If you want to emphasize and play up your gorgeous hazel or deep green eyes, find colors that emphasize the golds and greens in your eye. These colors include silvery pewter, shimmery lavender, light brown, or lighter golden brown tones.
Pimples appear from nowhere at times and catch you unprepared. Leave it to sit for around ten minutes or so. This will help clear the pimple less prominent.
The follicles being open from either process will cause problems. You can experience extensive skin irritation if you do this.
Heat-activated products will actually protect your hair from damaging heat. Using heated tools daily basis can damage your hair.
Fruit juice can actually help your secret weapon in the fight for better-looking skin. Eating fruits and vegetables will add many benefits to both your body and body. Drinking fruit and vegetable juices is a delicious way to get your recommended intake of fruit. Your skin can achieve that healthy glow if you add ample amounts of fresh juice to your diet.
Although beauty regimens may vary, certain aspects of them stay the same. The only real differences between regimens are the methods and products used. All you need to do is choose to do your homework and use your head and decide on the one that will be the best for you.
Drinking more water is the key to getting rid of cellulite.Water can prevent the condition from occurring rather than curing it. It also helps to keep your skin hydrated. Water also helps to rid your body of toxins which can cause cellulite. Try drinking at least 6 glasses a day.
Cellulite is something you can reduce the appearance of if you have a healthy diet. Whole grains and foods that are rich in fiber can fight cellulite-creating toxins. To add to a diet that’s healthy you can drink a lot of water as well.
Diet may just be the issue to your cellulite.Make sure that you eat lots of veggies and vegetables. These foods impart an alkaline ash which help you rid your skin looks. Juicing is a smart way to get an adequate amount of vegetables and fruits it needs.
If you smoke, stop. If you have cellulite, smoking is a way that you can make it worse. It increases toxins which decreases your skin‘s flexibility. This exacerbates your cellulite problem. Wrinkles and aging problems usually follow. If you struggle with quitting, talk to a doctor to find out if they can help.
Green tea is also great to drink to fight cellulite. Green tea has some ingredients in it that facilitate the breakdown of fatty pockets broken down easier. This will lead to less noticeable cellulite. You can get green tea capsules to help boost the effects and make it more potent.
Plastic surgery should only be a last resort for ridding the body of your cellulite. It is very risky; there are easier ways to reduce how much you can see your cellulite. You should only get surgery if you could think of and haven’t had any luck.
Water is so helpful when you’re dealing with cellulite. The greater the amount you intake, the suppler and plumper your skin will look and feel. Hydration helps your skin stay wrinkle-free and also helps you to flush toxins out of your body. This will soften the appearance of cellulite on your body.
You can reduce the look of cellulite appearance by eating a well-balanced and healthy diet. Eating high-fiber foods and whole grains can help remove the toxins that worsen the appearance of cellulite. Drinking adequate water can also helps to flush out toxins.
Nobody wants to discover cellulite on their body, and when it happens, a series of emotions can come to the forefront. This condition can really impact your self-esteem. The great advice in the article above will help to bring relief and a reduction of cellulite.
Cut down on the stress in your life. Stress can have a negative impact on your body’s natural hormone balance. These hormonal changes make your body keep those unwanted fats. So de-stressing your life can lead to a slimmer and trimmer you!